This includes all forms of threats generated outside the boundaries of Sri Lanka. These include:

Anti national elements both inside and outside of the state that advocates a separatist ideology is identified as a threat to the states sovereignty. Their influence is felt to a greater extent in respect of international relations, political atmosphere and the economic perspectives of Sri Lanka.

There is a possible threat of emerging fundamental Islamic groups in Sri Lanka working to the agenda of ISIS.

The geostrategic location of Sri Lanka has created conditions for espionageand foreign interference in domestic affairs of Sri Lanka in the past. The present world order and the rise of regional powers in the Asian region and their interest in the Indian Ocean region will further increase the influence of espionage and foreign interference in domestic affairs. The Government of Sri Lanka needs to use balanced diplomatic relations to position ourselves prudently in the current world order to achieve the broader national interests.

Littoral nations of the Indian Ocean Region face many maritime security challenges, such as piracy, trafficking of illicit drugs and people, environmental concerns, border security etc. Straddled centrally in the region, Sri Lanka has issues unique to itself like its close proximity to the Sea Lanes of Communication, nuclear power reactors of its South Asian neighbours, environmental concerns, illegal fishing of its resources, inundation of the coastal region etc. The Government of Sri Lanka should develop a maritime strategy along with required resources to overcome such challenges.

Oil spills related disasters at sea could adversely impact on the ecology in the maritime environment and have potential to affect maritime security. Regional governments are deeply concerned with major oil spills. Since around 200 ships pass the traffic separation zone South of Dondra Head; Sri Lanka is vulnerable to threats of oil spills hence need counter strategies and capabilities to mitigate such disasters.