This includes all forms of threats generated within the boundaries of the land mass of Sri Lanka:

Even though the terrorism has been militarily defeated within the boundaries of Sri Lanka, the remnants, recidivists and the supportive elements within Sri Lanka and overseas have not given up their intentions. Furthermore, a substantial portion of ex-combatants remains as vulnerable for the interested parties subjecting to indoctrination. Therefore, the possibility of re-emergence of terrorism cannot be ruled out.

Although Sri Lanka is free from maritime terrorism, it is not prudent to consider the threat is non- existent.

Although the separatist conflict was terminated the violence unleashed by organised crimes continue to exist. These crime syndicates has external as well as internal support that include personnel with combat experiences and are well equipped. Therefore, there could be a point where curtailing these syndicates go beyond the capacities of law enforcing agencies effecting the existing peace in the country.

The continued expression of perceived ethnic, political, social, economic and religious grievances together with the existing security trends in the world could endure to fuel or emergence of fundamental, radical extremist and anti-social sentiment endangering the peaceful environment. This could be further aggravated unless a constant surveillance is kept on the remnant of terrorist groups and sympathizers and such threats imposed by any other dissidents groups.

Sri Lanka is one of the countries in the Asian region which has experienced communal violence based on sectarian and ethnic divisions. Communal violence typically follows when there is degradation of rule of law, when the state fails to or is widely seen as unable to provide order, security and equal justice, which then leads to mass mobilization, followed by radicalization of communities. Hence, government shall uphold the rule of law, security and equal justice while strengthening the armed forces and formulating new laws in order to curtail future occurrences.

Sri Lanka has become a focal point in the worldwide drug trafficking network. Transfer of drugs by sea is taking place in a larger scale. The Sri Lanka Navy (SLN) has intercepted many boats engaged in drug trafficking but it is still continuing. Drug dealers have been using the country as a transit centre due to the proximity to the Golden Triangle and Golden Crescent. The drug traffickers are aware of the limited capabilities of security institutions in intercepting their movements due to the limitedresources, intelligence and surveillance. The SLN, Sri Lanka Cost guards, Sri Lanka Police, Sri Lanka Customs services and Narcotic Bureau are conducting operations to counter this menace. Yet, Sri Lanka has been identified as a major hub of drug trafficking. However identification of specific smuggling places, entry and exit points shall be denied by deploying ground forces when the situations demands.

Illegal migration and human trafficking is a major issue in the region. Due to the close proximity to the Indian subcontinent, many illegal activities are taking place across the Palk Strait. The human smuggling networks in the region have been severely degraded during recent years by educating people and due to operations carried out by the police and Sri Lanka Navy. Furthermore, due to action taken by recipient countries willingness of potential illegal immigrants to board a people-smuggling venture is at an all-time low hence, a trend to be continued without minimizing or concluding the action in place due to the fact that Sri Lankans still take the risk as there is a culture of ‘Migration’ in Sri Lanka.

IUU fishing and poaching in territorial waters and EEZ is a challenge due Sri Lanka’s geostrategic location. There are numerous reported incidents where fishermen have been arrested for IUU fishing close to Diego Garcia and Mauritius with traditional fishing gear. Hence, there is a strong possibility that larger foreign fishing vessels may engage in IUU fishing in Sri Lankan waters exploiting our resources at a larger scale, unnoticed due to the limited resources and capabilities of the SLN.

Sri Lankan conflict gave an opportunity for non-state actors to play a critical role in heightening or lessening human security while opening a new window for governments to care for. The term non-state is applicable to a large number of very different actors with distinct roles in societies in conflict. Sri Lanka experienced positive and negative impact due to non-state actors. Hence, government should implement selective control measures to avoid unnecessary involvement of non-state actors crossing their limits.

Misinformation and disinformation present challenges for individuals, businesses, and government of Sri Lanka. Anti national elements used and continue to use misinformation and disinformation to further their aims and interests by discrediting the state and its people.

Cyberspace and its underlying infrastructure are vulnerable to a wide range of risk stemming from both physical and cyber threats and hazards. Prevention of cyber security threats are becoming more important in digitized world.

Sri Lanka gets affected by natural disasters such as floods and cyclones. Preventive measures and mitigation of such disasters stand as challenges.

Non-communicable diseases, communicable diseases and epidemics present major health security challenges. Infant mortality, life expectancy, ageing population, drug addiction and poor healthcare negatively impact the health security. Measures need to be taken to ensure a healthy nation identifying contemporary threats.